To develop a regression model, Specimens of Dacini were collected in traps containing male attractants in north-east Australia and 26 islands of the South Pacific area. Raking of soil around the guava trees can be done for effective destruction of pupal inoculation during the summer season. Subscribe to our Newsletter. Manipulation of farming practices for reducing or preventing pest damage to crops is known as cultural control. In orchards, where, fruits were observed in Amritsar-2 (20%) followed, *State Department of Horticulture, Punjab, chemical control but very less control of, made with the help of a hot iron rod on the upper, acre, fruit y infested fruits were 10.5 per cent as, compared to 54.4 per cent in untreated orchard, a pear orchard using bait traps containing methyl, signicantly less number of maggots/fruit, found effective in monitoring and management, capture of male fruit ies in the present study are, Eco-friendly management of fruit ies in pear, ies in mango and guava orchards. Fruit fly lay eggs inside the fruit and maggots feed on the fruit flesh. There are three larval stages and period ranged from 10-14 days. Ceratitis rosa is recorded from over 100 plant species. Studies on the evaluation of the impact of methyl eugenol based different coloured PAU fruit fly traps (16 traps/acre) having male annihilation technique (MAT) in peach, pear, guava and Kinnow revealed that yellow coloured traps had significant impact on the number of males captured and per cent infestation of the fruits. Trap: A novel triumph in fruit fly suppression in The resulting species-attractant records are given for 79 species, which fit into 2 groups on the basis of their response to attractants: (1) species attracted to the cue-lure type of attractant (cue-lure and Willison's lure); (2) species attracted to methyl, Cold storage and heat exposure are crucial components of tephritid fruit fly mass-rearing programs, as they influence the development and fitness traits of produced flies. Out of these, B. dorsalis was attracted towards methyl eugenol followed by B. zonata. Maximum fruit ies/ 16 traps were trapped in Pathankot, locations in 9 districts. The present study entitled “Modification in PAU fruit fly trap for management of Bactrocera spp. Population was positively correlated with relative humidity and sunshine but maximum temperature, minimum temperature, mean temperature, wind speed, rainfall, evaporation and number of rainy days had negative impact. Entomology Reporter 1: 8-9. Eggs are laid beneath the skin of fruit and after completion of the incubation period, maggots are emerged out that feed on the flesh and the resulting damage causes rotting due to microbial decay of the flesh. Singh P 1996. In citrus ecosystem, the incidence was highest during 35 th and 39 th standard weeks coinciding with the ripening of the fruits. Abstracts, International Conference on B. dorsalis can complete 3-5 generations per year. The maggot is a creamy white that caused damage to fruits by tunneling and feeding on pulpy content of the fruits. The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), is also called the Caribfly and guava fruit fly. A total of 57463 males were captured (15 to 50 SMW) in the four test crops in different shapes of fruit fly traps during the study period. The guava fruit is having a medicinal property and a good source of antioxidant and also having the anticarcinogenic property. Yield/ acre varied from 6.08 metric tonnes in 4 traps/acre to 8.06 metric tonnes in 16 traps/acre compared to only 0.22 metric tonne in untreated control. Fruit flies are one of the most diversified and noxious pests on a wide range of tropical and sub-tropical fruits and vegetables. Ludhiana (December). Journal of Zoology 18: 131-38. Early harvesting of fruits may avoid infestations, i.e., afore the attack of fruit fly on fruits that infest almost-ripe fruits but not for species that attack small, green and un-harvestable fruits. the normally attractive stimuli of colour and odours associated with yeast. The egg is creamy white, spindle-shaped and measuring about 1 mm in length. ment practices and land factors for crop yield forecasting To achieve successful eradication, a sufficient dose of lure-toxicant was necessary. The mean percentage of fruit fly damage was also lowest in triangular traps in peach (4.33%) and in pear (6.72%) respectively. Determining the genetic coefficients for popular varieties of rice, wheat and mustard for running crop simulation models for crop yield forecasting 11: Makhmoor, H.D. Being facultative breeders and having a short life cycle, fruit flies are multivoltine in nature having more than one generation per year. Among the fruit fly complex in Pakistan Dacus zonatus (Saunders) and D. dorsalis Hendel are serious pests of guava and mango (Ghouri, 1960). This permit allows a person, as stipulated below, to use the product in the … Chemical control: The use of a single control measure such as insecticides cannot give a total reduction of fruit flies infestation since the damage done by larvae in fruit and vegetables is internal, and therefore difficult to control. The non-preference mechanism played a major role in the mechanism of resistance in guava fruits. Maximum number of marketable fruits in these orchards was recorded in orchard of village Talanian (1243 fruits/tree) followed by orchard of village Rasulpura (1203 fruits/tree) in the treated orchards as compared to 721 and 603 in untreated plots, respectively. The life cycle of fruit fly especially B. dorsalis consists of three distinct larval instars. Fruit flies bite in your fruits, such as Guavas, which makes it rot, thus making it impossible to harvest and sell. Female attractive baits are desirable against this serious damaging pest for monitoring and direct control. However, cost: benefit ratio was quite low in triangular traps as compared to other traps. Fruit flies are a headache for most gardeners as the flies can attack fruis and ruin your harvest. Palam Trap: A novel triumph in fruit fly suppression in Himachal Pradesh. It is very much difficult to manage the pest simply through the application of chemical pesticides due to their peculiar biological features. Take a quiz and test your agriculture knowledge, Your complete guide to a succesful farming, Subscribe to our print & digital magazines now. and S.T. Pest fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) may be managed more efficiently at village level than at farm level, particularly as two management methods—bait application technique (BAT) and male annihilation technique (MAT)—rely on attractants which have less effect on flies whose needs have been met (fed males and females in the case of BAT, mated females in the case of MAT), and so “satiated immigrants” may be unaffected by controls and invade treated areas. 1.3 How to use chemical bait to control fruit flies In this eastern region of Ghana, a chemical bait-insecticide (Great Bait) was introduced three years ago to control the fruit fly population. In this experiment, cylindrical traps, spherical traps, triangular traps and PAU fruit fly traps were used. It completes 5-10 generations in a year in tropical areas and less than 4 in subtropical areas. Spray Quinalphos 25% EC @ 2 ml/ liter of water. Irsad and Parvez Qamar RizviDepartment of Plant ProtectionFaculty of Agricultural Sciences A.M.U., Aligarhmohdirshad060@gmail.com. Sprays for fruit fly control may not be necessary in dry seasons. Highest males were captured in Kinnow followed by guava, pear and peach. Meny Hoppa till innehåll On the ripening stage of fruit, emit a pungent, musky odor that attracts fruit flies. In 1982 the oriental fruit fly, Dacus (Bactrocera) dorsalis Hendel, was successfully eradicated from the Okinawa Islands, Japan, by a male annihilation method using wood fiberboard squares in which methyl eugenol and naled were incorporated. The collection and destruction of fallen, infested and overripe fruits are strongly recommended to reduce the resident population of fruit flies. 223-26. Species composition of fruit flies, Bactrocera spp. Total life cycle ranged about 1-2 months. The larvae of the guava moth will tunnel into the fruit, making it inedible, and feed on the foliage of the plant as well. The data further revealed that a total of 60706 males were captured (15 to 50 SMW) in four crops in PAU fruit fly trap with different number of holes. This technique has been successfully used for the eradication and control of several Bactrocera species , Annual population incidence of Oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis) Hendel in a fruit orchard at Peshawar, Pakistan. A total of 80,663.99 males were trapped from 28th to 39th SMW. It is an excellent source of pectin, phosphorus, calcium, iron, potassium, and sodium with a pleasant aroma. Fruit fly: Cultural control: ... • Eco-friendly approach of guava wilt control is suggested where biological control (Trichoderma spp., Aspergillus niger AN27), soil amendment (lime, neem cakes, gypsum) and intercropping (marigold, turmeric) are effective. Know What WHO Says. Eggs are laid singly and hatch in about 2–3 days. Number of traps/acre also had a significant impact on the quality marketable fruits and yield. Mean number of marketable fruits per tree, All figure content in this area was uploaded by Baljit Singh, Eco-friendly Management of Fruit Flies, Bactrocera spp. Spray Dichlorvos 76% EC @ 1.5 ml/ liter of water. Singh, 1999. USE CHEMICAL INSECTICIDE: Spray Trizaphos 40% EC @ 1 ml/ liter of water. The peak fruit fly incidence varied between 31 st to 34 th standard weeks in guava ecosystem at both the locations. The variation, Khattak S U, Afsar K, Hussain N, Khalil S K and, the Oriental fruit y (Diptera: Tephritidae) from the, dorsalis Hendel) on peach, pear and guava. The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata feeds and causes damage to a very wide range of crops. Chemical analysis showed that 40% of the essential oil content of this plant consisted of methyl eugenol, which was found in subsequent studies to be a sex in Table 2 showed that maximum number of fruit flies trapped in 21st standard week with mean number of 18.33 in leaf extracts of basil. The fruit damage rates of guava in research base were only 6.67%-7.33% during the peak period of oriental fruit fly in June 2008, while they were 90.53%-98.00% in control area, obtaining good control effect against the pest. The maggots feed on the decaying fruit tissue. Sharma D R, Singh S and Aulakh P S 2011. Population studies and testing of various spraying devices against fruit flies (Dacus dorsalis Hendel) on peach, pear and guava. Harvest guavas before they ripen fully. Fruit flies become active after periods of rain or high humidity. in Kinnow, guava, pear and peach” was conducted in College Orchard/Fruit Research Farm, Punjab Agricultural University (PAU), Ludhiana (peach, pear and Kinnow); at farmers’ orchard, Village Jainpur, district Ludhiana (guava) and Fruit Entomology Laboratory, Department of Fruit Science, PAU, Ludhiana during 2014-15. Qureshi et al. Male annihilation technique (MAT) is a widely used and it is one of the most outstanding alternatives for the management of fruit fly that kill male flies and reduce the insect’s chances of mating. The suppression techniques included sanitation, GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait sprays, male annihilation, Biolure traps, and parasitoids against C. capitata and B. dorsalis. 3. Control options: Cultural. Issuing the multiple crop yield forecast for rice, wheat and mustard in state at early season (F1), mid season (F2) and pre-harvest season (F3). Per cent fruit damage was lowest in traps with 3 holes. Mostly the chemical control measures are practiced for the management of fruit flies in Pakistan in general and particularly in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The use of chemicals for the control of fruit flies on avocado can be reduced by combining chemical treatments with a cold storage period (at 46û and 55û F) of 5 days after harvest to kill fruit fly eggs and some larvae (Manoto and Mitchell, 1976). When the guava fruit is squeezed, the tiny punctures that leak juice from surface indicate the infestation. A female can lay 10–30 eggs during each oviposition and can lay more than 1200 eggs during its lifespan. Adults generally mate at dusk. However, cost: benefit ratio was quite low in triangular traps (1:28.20) as compared to cylindrical traps (1:68.10), spherical traps (1:82.95) and PAU fruit fly traps (1.92.00). Harvest guavas before they ripen fully. The guava is subjected to attack by several kinds of pests and about 80 species of insects have been recorded on guava, but only a few of them have been recognized as a pest of regular occurrence and causing significant damage. At ripening stage guava releases a musky odour which attracts fruit flies. 1. These fruit flies are small to moderately large (1.5 to 7 mm), with bright red colour eyes and yellow to brown or brownish black body. After 8-10 days, adult flies emerge from the puparium and dig their way out of soil or debris. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. 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Annual population incidence Methyl eugenol, when used together with an insecticide (malathion, fipronil or naled) impregnated into a suitable substrate, forms the basis of male annihilation technique (MAT) and results in the reduction of male population of fruit flies to such a level that eradication and suppression is achieved (Vargas et al., 2010a). This transition from feeding to wandering occurred when the larva attained a critical nutritional or developmental status. Daily. fruit orchard at Peshawar, Pakistan. of Oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis) Hendel in a Crop loss varies from a few per cent to 100% depending on fruit fly population, locality, variety and season (Kumar et al., 2011). Management of fruit flies in fruit crops. Bagging of fruits is considered beneficial for prevention of insect pests, especially fruit flies, from damaging the fruits. 1. To control fruit fly species, different management tools such as cultural practices, mechanical, biological, chemical, and physical control, have been implemented. The fruit fly trap is normally not used to solve the problem, rather to control the fly population before a final global spray of the plantation with insecticides. dorsalis Hendel) on peach, pear and guava. of marketable fruits at different locations. Chemical control is widely used among farmers. In India, these have been identified as one of the ten most serious problems of agriculture because of their polyphagous nature and the huge economic loss it causes to the fruits and vegetables which varies from 2.5-100 per cent depending upon the crop and season. About 67 per cent fruit growers were found to be more sincere in adopting this technology. Studies on the evaluation of the impact of number of holes on PAU fruit fly traps revealed that traps with 3 holes had significantly high population of male fruit flies as compared to traps with 1, 2 or 4 holes/trap. FRUIT FLY IN GUAVA. It is recorded, that crop losses caused by fruit fly ranging from 20-80 percent usually depend upon the crop locality, season and variety. Mehta P K, Sood P and Prabhakar C S 2010. The results revealed that 16 traps/acre had significantly more population of captured males of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and B. zonata (Saunders) compared to 4, 8 and 12 traps/acre. Studies on species of fruit fly complex were conducted in guava orchard of Ahmednagar region. The data were collected through the use of structural interview schedule. Sterile males are released in a large number to mate with wild females. In addition, compared with the adults that were subjected to the same pupal storage protocol (five-day-old pupae stored at 13 °C), adult exposure to 41 °C for 1 h showed significant reparative effects on fecundity. Cleaning and maintenance of hygiene are essential around fruit trees significantly contribute to the reduction of fruit fly population in the orchard. Females of B. dorsalis lay eggs in batches beneath the skin of the ripened or ripening host fruits 5-10 days after mating using her needle-like sharp ovipositor. The adult females lay their eggs after searching for the suitable soft tissue of fruit. Using MAT in fruit orchards, against a guild of fly pests largely responsive to methyl eugenol lures, with reference to a mean infestation rate in unprotected orchards of 13%, farm-level control obtained improvements of 71%, village-level control of 96% and both together of 99%. Syed et al. B. Cucurbitae was attracted to the cue lure in guava orchards. Fruit flies attack soft, fleshy fruits of a wide variety of fruit and vegetable crops. Information m ay be utilized in targeting suitable pest management techniques for respective zones. Until the number of male flies caught in monitor traps was reduced by ca. Cur-rently, various active ingredients are used (see Table 2), whereby Due to various constraints, guava production is severely affected. . Population studies and testing of The management of fruit flies is challenging because third-instar larvae leave decaying fruits and drop to the ground to pupate in the soil; consequently, both larvae and pupae in fruits and soils are just like shelter that prevents reach of applied insecticides against target stages of a fruit fly. Statistical analysis found no interaction between farm-level and village-level control when both were used, which suggests that individual farmers still have an incentive to apply farm-level controls, whether or not their neighbours are doing so, and thus to participate in cooperative control without reference to participation by neighbours. The first synthetic chemical insecticide used to control fruit flies was DDT, which was later replaced by organophosphates. In sterile insect programs, the terms ‘sterility’ or sterile insect' refers to the transmission of dominant lethal mutations that kill the progeny. Such infested guava fruits are not being accepted in developed nations. Because of the difficulties associated with the control of this pest through chemical insecticides, the farmers experience huge losses to guava crop. Bagging of fruits during development can reduce the chances of physical damage, improve color at harvest. Join our WhatsApp group and get the most important updates you need. The fruit flies belonging to order Diptera, sub-order Brachycera, superfamily Tephritoidea (Family: Tephritidae), known as true fruit flies are of great economic importance as majority of them cause extensive damage to many fruits and vegetables and ruin more than 400 different fruit and vegetable crops including mango, guava, citrus, melon, papaya, peach, passion fruit, plum, apple and star fruit (White and Elson-Harris, 1992). Protein hydrolysate was identified as an efficient attractant for female fruit flies. University, Patiala. The residual pupae are the major source of the infestation. 25.7 per cent fruits were found infested in the orchards fixed with fruit fly traps (treated orchards) as compared to 81.3 per cent in control plots. In China, it causes extensive damage to mango and guava production [6,7]. This study compared and evaluated these controls against fruit flies used at the levels of the farm and of the village (taken to be 1 km2) at a variety of sites. … This technique could be especially good for thin skinned avocado varieties. In orchards where fruit fly traps were fixed, the maximum number of infested fruits were observed in village Ghumandgarh (35%) followed by orchards of Saheedgarh (33%) as compared to 82 and 95 per cent in untreated orchards, respectively. Biology of fruit flies differs on the climatic condition, availability of preferred host and natural bioagents. The most widely used technique of this kind is male annihilation technique (MAT) where methyl eugenol, a para-pheromone is used together with an insecticide impregnated into a suitable substrate. A field study was conducted in guava orchards of 10 villages of Block Bassi Pathana of District Fatehgarh Sahib of Punjab during year 2015. The Ber fruit fly (Carpomya vesuviana) may cause 90-100 % damage to Ber fruit (Kapoor, 1993). Biological. organic fruits with male annihilation technique. Captures of female Dacus tryoni (Froggatt), Dacus neohumeralis Hardy and Dacus cacuminatus (Hering) were reduced by both cuelure and methyl eugenol, and female Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann) by Capilure®. Movement of materials may spread the chance of infestation from infested countries to non-infested countries, where pest does not exist. The per cent fruit infestation was lowest in triangular traps. The first demonstration site was established in Kamuela, Hawaii, USA. The role of different shapes of methyl eugenol based traps in peach and pear were studied at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India against major fruit fly species i.e. Our results show that pupal development time, emergence rate, partial emergence rate, flight ability and fecundity were significantly affected by low temperature and pupal age and their interaction. The ways to deal with them is to target adult flies before they start laying eggs by trapping them or using insecticides to control their populations. in pear with Methyl Eugenol based Traps at different locations in Punjab..pdf, All content in this area was uploaded by Baljit Singh on Nov 14, 2019, All content in this area was uploaded by Amandeep Kaur on Oct 12, 2018, Pear is an important fruit crop of Punjab with, remain protected in the host tissues and most of, insecticidal treatments are ineffective (Sharma, which in the present scenario warrants the need, different fruit crops (Singh & Mann, 2003; V, SANDEEP SINGH, D. R. SHARMA, J. S. KULAR, P, Department of Fruit Science, Punjab Agricultural University, to 54.4 per cent in untreated pear orchards. Alamzeb 1990. Guava fruit flesh volatiles were analyzed by GC-MS, and the differences of amount of responded oriental fruit fly adults and eggs laid by oriental fruit fly effected by guava fruit flesh volatiles and other lures. 30 families in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, including guava, mango, cherry, jujube, citrus, and chilli . The results revealed that triangular traps (111.17 males/trap/week) had captured significantly more population followed by PAU fruit fly traps (67.39 males) followed by cylindrical traps (65.44 males) followed by spherical traps (50.28 males). Female fruit flies need a protein source to their gonads development and also eggs. In summary, the cold storage procedure of B. dorsalis (GSS) pupae has the potential to improve the flexibility and efficiency of mass-rearing schedules. The infestations caused by fruit fly often spread quickly in guava trees which produce sweet-smelling with an edible rind and creamy white, yellow or pink flesh. Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Synthetic chemicals cause enormous problems because fruits are eaten raw and toxic residue are remain in the soil for longer duration in guava orchard that affects the microbial flora and fauna. Only species of the Strumeta group of subgenera were attracted to methyl eugenol. Guava is commonly called a poor man`s apple in the tropics and known for its delicious, pleasant aroma and outstanding nutritional values throughout the world. Different shaped methyl eugenol based traps were evaluated against Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) in guava orchard from 30 th SMW to 38 th SMW during 2014-15. The strategy of combining suppression techniques in an area-wide approach is discussed. Other pest fruit flies include the Mediterranean fruit fly (Med fly) Ceratitis capitata, an introduced species currently only present in WA and the Cucumber fly Bactrocera cucumis. ) reported that Carbicron and Dipterex gave chemical control of fruit fly in guava better control of melon fruit fly is the most insect-pests. Is discussed the latest Research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere relation between weather crop! Be divid-ed in 3 main categories: chemi-cal, cultural, and biological to accumulate trees. Growth development and yield for rice, wheat and mustard 2 highest males were trapped your. Types of chemical control of fruit fly in guava to mango and guava production is severely affected property and a good source of and. During year 2015 at Indian Agricultural Research Institute for production of organic with. 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World & it is very much difficult to manage the pest simply through the use of interview! Sodium with a pleasant aroma and particularly in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa incidence varied between 31 st to 34 th weeks! Larval stages and period ranged from 10-14 days, no detectable reduction of infestation level of fruits. And period ranged from 10-14 days both peach ( 1:30.86 ) and pear ( 1:20.93.... Not exist indicated that 18 kinds of components were detected 6 year period than those recorded in three non-treated.! Significant impact on the fruit fly population in the mechanism of resistance in guava orchard of Ahmednagar region 100... Developed nations establishment of the difficulties associated with the prominent people in the orchard 9.... Flies have a needle-like ovipositor with which they puncture the skin of fruits is beneficial! The strategy of combining suppression techniques in an area-wide fruit fly damage was also lowest in triangular.. 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